Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, and certain medications or toxins.[2] A common condition that results in hearing loss is chronic ear infections.[2] Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus, syphilis and rubella, may also cause hearing loss in the child.[2][10] Hearing loss is diagnosed when hearing testing finds that a person is unable to hear 25 decibels in at least one ear.[2] Testing for poor hearing is recommended for all newborns.[8] Hearing loss can be categorized as mild (25 to 40 dB), moderate (41 to 55 dB), moderate-severe (56 to 70 dB), severe (71 to 90 dB), or profound (greater than 90 dB).[2] There are three main types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss.[3]
Is conductive hearing loss curable? Yes, often. Most cases of conductive hearing loss are temporary and are cured by means of appropriate medical treatment, so it is important to seek immediate medical assistance. Other types of conductive hearing losses can be treated with hearing aids or types of hearing implants. Finally, some types of conductive hearing loss can be treated through surgery.

Atherosclerosis. With age and buildup of cholesterol and other deposits, major blood vessels close to your middle and inner ear lose some of their elasticity — the ability to flex or expand slightly with each heartbeat. That causes blood flow to become more forceful, making it easier for your ear to detect the beats. You can generally hear this type of tinnitus in both ears.
Ringing/buzzing/humming/ringing are all called tinnitus. The best things you can do are A) avoid loud noise exposure, as noise exposure can make it worse, B) limit your salt and caffeine intake, as both of these have been linked with tinnitus, C) avoid silent environments (i.e. sleep with a fan/radio/podcast on, do homework while listening to music, etc). While there is no cure for tinnitus and no way to make it vanish completely, avoiding loud noise exposure and using gentle background noise are the recommended "treatments."

If you develop hearing loss due to a buildup of wax in the ear canal, you can remove the wax at home. Over-the-counter solutions, including wax softeners, can remove wax from the ear. Syringes can also push warm water through the ear canal to remove the wax. Consult your doctor before attempting to remove any object stuck in your ear to avoid unintentionally damaging your ear.
Prevention involves avoiding exposure to loud noise for longer periods or chronically.[2] If there is an underlying cause, treating it may lead to improvements.[3] Otherwise, typically, management involves psychoeducation or counseling as talk therapy.[5] Sound generators or hearing aids may help some.[2] As of 2013, there were no effective medications.[3] It is common, affecting about 10–15% of people.[5] Most, however, tolerate it well, and it is a significant problem in only 1–2% of people.[5] The word tinnitus comes from the Latin tinnire which means "to ring".[3]
i am currently studying acoustic shock for a course i am taking. i do also work in a headset environment in a large office. I would be interested to hear of anyones experiences of acoustic shock, temporary real or perceived. i myself suffer from the confused hearing loss, unable to clearly know which direction noises are coming from. especially dangerous when you have police, ambulance or fire engine sirens coming close to you. not knowing the direction they are coming from makes it difficult to remove yourself from their way eg at a roundabout… my sleep is also disturbed on occassion, by low drumming noises. this has only happened over the past 5yrs whilst working a lot on the telephone section of my department. a lot of customers answer the phone whilst holding a screaming baby or have a parrot screeching behind them, some shout down the phone suddenly, the noise seems intensified when it is held in a headpiece….
Having information about tinnitus can be very helpful. A lot of people start off looking online and while there is some fantastic information available on the internet, there is also a lot of very unhelpful information. An easy way to ensure what you are reading is appropriately written and produced is to check that the Information Standard has been adhered to - all our information complies with the Information Standard.
Pain was the most frequent symptom, reported by 95%. Of these, 81% reported ear pain, 11% pain in the neck or jaw, and 7% facial pain. Tinnitus was reported by 50%, usually accompanied by other symptoms, but in 6% it was the only symptom. Loss of balance was reported by 48%. The most distressing and durable symptom tended to be hyperacusis, reported by 32%.
If there is a change in the system, for example, a hearing loss or ear infection, the amount of information being sent to the brain changes. The brain then responds to this change in levels by trying to get more information from the ear, and the extra information you may get is the sound we call tinnitus. The tinnitus is therefore actually brain activity and not the ear itself! It is generally accepted that it isn’t only a change in the ear that can result in tinnitus, but it could be due to a change in our stress levels, for example, with tinnitus being noticed after periods of significant stress, a change in life circumstances or general wellbeing.

Most tinnitus is subjective, meaning that only you can hear the noise. But sometimes it's objective, meaning that someone else can hear it, too. For example, if you have a heart murmur, you may hear a whooshing sound with every heartbeat; your clinician can also hear that sound through a stethoscope. Some people hear their heartbeat inside the ear — a phenomenon called pulsatile tinnitus. It's more likely to happen in older people, because blood flow tends to be more turbulent in arteries whose walls have stiffened with age. Pulsatile tinnitus may be more noticeable at night, when you're lying in bed and there are fewer external sounds to mask the tinnitus. If you notice any new pulsatile tinnitus, you should consult a clinician, because in rare cases it is a sign of a tumor or blood vessel damage.
^ McCombe A, Baguley D, Coles R, McKenna L, McKinney C, Windle-Taylor P (2001). "Guidelines for the grading of tinnitus severity: the results of a working group commissioned by the British Association of Otolaryngologists, Head and Neck Surgeons, 1999". Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences. 26 (5): 388–93. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2273.2001.00490.x. PMID 11678946. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-24.
Conductive hearing loss results when there is any problem in delivering sound energy to your cochlea, the hearing part in the inner ear. Common reasons for conductive hearing loss include blockage of your ear canal, a hole in your ear drum, problems with three small bones in your ear, or fluid in the space between your ear drum and cochlea. Fortunately, most cases of conductive hearing loss can be improved.

^ Fuente A, Qiu W, Zhang M, Xie H, Kardous CA, Campo P, Morata TC (March 2018). "Use of the kurtosis statistic in an evaluation of the effects of noise and solvent exposures on the hearing thresholds of workers: An exploratory study" (PDF). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 143 (3): 1704–1710. Bibcode:2018ASAJ..143.1704F. doi:10.1121/1.5028368. PMID 29604694.


Tinnitus is commonly thought of as a symptom of adulthood, and is often overlooked in children. Children with hearing loss have a high incidence of tinnitus, even though they do not express the condition or its effect on their lives.[112][113] Children do not generally report tinnitus spontaneously and their complaints may not be taken seriously.[114] Among those children who do complain of tinnitus, there is an increased likelihood of associated otological or neurological pathology such as migraine, juvenile Meniere's disease or chronic suppurative otitis media.[115] Its reported prevalence varies from 12% to 36% in children with normal hearing thresholds and up to 66% in children with a hearing loss and approximately 3–10% of children have been reported to be troubled by tinnitus.[116]
Brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors, trauma, drug abuse. Symptoms include headache, numbness of the face, dilated pupils, changes in vision, the "worst headache of your life," or a painful stiff neck. Immediate treatment for a brain aneurysm is crucial for patient survival.
An exaggerated startle reflex and hypervigilance are listed as symptoms of PTSD (DSM-IV, D.5), and individuals with PTSD have been shown to produce heightened autonomic responses (eg increased heart rate) to acoustic stimuli that would not be expected to produce a startle response. My clinical observation of over 85 ASD clients shows that once TTTS has become established, auditory hypervigilance and an exaggerated startle reflex can lead to the escalation of hyperacusis, where the range of sounds that elicit this involuntary response increases to include more everyday sounds. These sounds become increasingly intolerable when TTTS symptoms are exacerbated following exposure. Phonophobia, headache, fatigue, anxiety, and depression can result, particularly if an inadequate explanation or diagnosis of TTTS symptoms is not offered.
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) typically manifests as elevated hearing thresholds (i.e. less sensitivity or muting). Noise exposure is the cause of approximately half of all cases of hearing loss, causing some degree of problems in 5% of the population globally.[50] The majority of hearing loss is not due to age, but due to noise exposure.[51] Various governmental, industry and standards organizations set noise standards.[52] Many people are unaware of the presence of environmental sound at damaging levels, or of the level at which sound becomes harmful. Common sources of damaging noise levels include car stereos, children's toys, motor vehicles, crowds, lawn and maintenance equipment, power tools, gun use, musical instruments, and even hair dryers. Noise damage is cumulative; all sources of damage must be considered to assess risk. In the US, 12.5% of children aged 6–19 years have permanent hearing damage from excessive noise exposure.[53] The World Health Organization estimates that half of those between 12 and 35 are at risk from using personal audio devices that are too loud.[11] Hearing loss in adolescents may be caused by loud noise from toys, music by headphones, and concerts or events.[54]

Tinnitus is very common and is reported in all age groups, even young children. About 30% of people will experience tinnitus at some point in their lives but the number of people who live with persistent tinnitus is approximately 13% (over 1 in 8). Tinnitus is more common in people who have hearing loss or other ear problems, but it can also be found in people with normal hearing.
Depending on the cause of your deafness, your doctor may suggest you have a cochlear implant. This device turns sounds into electrical signals and uses them to directly stimulate your auditory nerve, allowing you to hear. One part of the device is put behind your ear on the outside of your head. The other part is surgically implanted in a bone (called the mastoid bone) behind your ear. It will take time and help from a therapist to get used to using a cochlear implant.
Watery or serous discharge may be due to local inflammation and sometimes due to fungal infections. More purulent discharge, which is often yellow to brown with an offensive odor, may arise with bacterial infections. A more sticky, mucoid discharge is seen with a CSF leak and perforated eardrum. Blood-tinged discharge may be seen in more severe infections and injury.
Tinnitus is extremely common. Nearly everyone has experienced tinnitus (for example after noisy events or in very quiet environments) 10 per cent of the population experience tinnitus on a regular basis. In about 1-2 per cent of people tinnitus is sufficient to cause distress. However we know that putting anyone in a sufficiently quiet environment will allow them to perceive tinnitus.
Besides research studies seeking to improve hearing, such as the ones listed above, research studies on the deaf have also been carried out in order to understand more about audition. Pijil and Shwarz (2005) conducted their study on the deaf who lost their hearing later in life and, hence, used cochlear implants to hear. They discovered further evidence for rate coding of pitch, a system that codes for information for frequencies by the rate that neurons fire in the auditory system, especially for lower frequencies as they are coded by the frequencies that neurons fire from the basilar membrane in a synchronous manner. Their results showed that the subjects could identify different pitches that were proportional to the frequency stimulated by a single electrode. The lower frequencies were detected when the basilar membrane was stimulated, providing even further evidence for rate coding.[130]
TTTS was originally described by Dr I. Klockhoff (9-12), and has been proposed by Patuzzi, Milhinch and Doyle (13) and Patuzzi (7) as the neurophysiological mechanism causing most of the persistent ASD symptoms. TTTS is an involuntary condition where the centrally mediated reflex threshold for tensor tympani muscle activity becomes reduced as a result of anxiety and trauma, so it is continually and rhythmically contracting and relaxing, aggravated by intolerable sound exposure1. This appears to initiate a cascade of physiological reactions in and around the ear, which can include: tympanic membrane flutter; alterations in ventilation of the middle ear cavity leading to a sense of blockage or fullness, as well as muffled/echoey/distorted hearing; irritation of the trigeminal nerve innervating the tensor tympani muscle, leading to frequent neuralgic pain; and symptoms consistent with temporomandibular disorder (TMD).

The accepted definition of chronic tinnitus, as compared to normal ear noise experience, is five minutes of ear noise occurring at least twice a week.[51] However, people with chronic tinnitus often experience the noise more frequently than this and can experience it continuously or regularly, such as during the night when there is less environmental noise to mask the sound.
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