TTTS was originally described by Dr I. Klockhoff (9-12), and has been proposed by Patuzzi, Milhinch and Doyle (13) and Patuzzi (7) as the neurophysiological mechanism causing most of the persistent ASD symptoms. TTTS is an involuntary condition where the centrally mediated reflex threshold for tensor tympani muscle activity becomes reduced as a result of anxiety and trauma, so it is continually and rhythmically contracting and relaxing, aggravated by intolerable sound exposure1. This appears to initiate a cascade of physiological reactions in and around the ear, which can include: tympanic membrane flutter; alterations in ventilation of the middle ear cavity leading to a sense of blockage or fullness, as well as muffled/echoey/distorted hearing; irritation of the trigeminal nerve innervating the tensor tympani muscle, leading to frequent neuralgic pain; and symptoms consistent with temporomandibular disorder (TMD).
If your child has not been born with hearing problems, it is most likely that their hearing loss is temporary. However, some children are born deaf. Each year in the UK, around 840 babies are born with permanent hearing loss. Your child will have a hearing test soon after they’re born (the Newborn Hearing Screening Programme ), so any problems with their hearing can be picked up early on.
^ Flamme GA, Deiters K, Needham T (March 2011). "Distributions of pure-tone hearing threshold levels among adolescents and adults in the United States by gender, ethnicity, and age: Results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey". International Journal of Audiology. 50 Suppl 1: S11-20. doi:10.3109/14992027.2010.540582. PMID 21288063.
When there does not seem to be a connection with a disorder of the inner ear or auditory nerve, the tinnitus is called nonotic (i.e. not otic). In some 30% of tinnitus cases, the tinnitus is influenced by the somatosensory system, for instance, people can increase or decrease their tinnitus by moving their face, head, or neck. This type is called somatic or craniocervical tinnitus, since it is only head or neck movements that have an effect.
Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise. For example, attending a loud concert can trigger short-lived tinnitus. Some medications (especially aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs taken in high doses) can cause tinnitus that goes away when the drug is discontinued. When it lasts more than six months, it's known as chronic tinnitus. As many as 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from this condition; it's especially common in people over age 55 and strongly associated with hearing loss. Many people worry that tinnitus is a sign that they are going deaf or have another serious medical problem, but it rarely is.
Call centre staff using a telephone headset are vulnerable to ASD because of the increased likelihood of exposure, close to their ear(s), to an acoustic incident randomly transmitted via the telephone line. In the early 1990s, co-inciding with the rapid growth of call centres in Australia, increasing numbers of employees were reporting acoustic shock symptoms (2). A similar pattern was being noticed overseas (3, 4).