^ Casale, Manuele; Costantino, Andrea; Rinaldi, Vittorio; Forte, Antonio; Grimaldi, Marta; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Aloise, Fabio; Pontari, Domenico (2018-11-11). "Mobile applications in otolaryngology for patients: An update". Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology. 3 (6): 434–438. doi:10.1002/lio2.201. ISSN 2378-8038. PMC 6302723. PMID 30599026.
Hearing loss is generally measured by playing generated or recorded sounds, and determining whether the person can hear them. Hearing sensitivity varies according to the frequency of sounds. To take this into account, hearing sensitivity can be measured for a range of frequencies and plotted on an audiogram. Other method for quantifying hearing loss is a hearing test using a mobile application or hearing aid application, which includes a hearing test.[81][82] Hearing diagnosis using mobile application is similar to the audiometry procedure.[81] Audiogram, obtained using mobile application, can be used to adjust hearing aid application.[82] Another method for quantifying hearing loss is a speech-in-noise test. which gives an indication of how well one can understand speech in a noisy environment.[83] Otoacoustic emissions test is an objective hearing test that may be administered to toddlers and children too young to cooperate in a conventional hearing test. Auditory brainstem response testing is an electrophysiological test used to test for hearing deficits caused by pathology within the ear, the cochlear nerve and also within the brainstem.
Other sound-enhancing technologies include personal listening systems that allow you to tune in to what you want to hear and mute other sounds. TV-listening systems make it possible for you to hear the television or radio without turning the volume way up. Different kinds of phone-amplifying devices as well as captioned phones that let you read what your caller is saying make conversations possible on home and mobile phones. 
An assessment of hyperacusis, a frequent accompaniment of tinnitus,[57] may also be made.[58] The measured parameter is Loudness Discomfort Level (LDL) in dB, the subjective level of acute discomfort at specified frequencies over the frequency range of hearing. This defines a dynamic range between the hearing threshold at that frequency and the loudnes discomfort level. A compressed dynamic range over a particular frequency range is associated with subjectve hyperacusis. Normal hearing threshold is generally defined as 0–20 decibels (dB). Normal loudness discomfort levels are 85–90+ dB, with some authorities citing 100 dB. A dynamic range of 55 dB or less is indicative of hyperacusis.[59][60]
Psychological research has focussed on the tinnitus distress reaction (TDR) to account for differences in tinnitus severity.[16][19][20][21] These findings suggest that among those people, conditioning at the initial perception of tinnitus, linked tinnitus with negative emotions, such as fear and anxiety from unpleasant stimuli at the time. This enhances activity in the limbic system and autonomic nervous system, thus increasing tinnitus awareness and annoyance.[22]
There is a progressive loss of ability to hear high frequencies with aging known as presbycusis. For men, this can start as early as 25 and women at 30. Although genetically variable it is a normal concomitant of ageing and is distinct from hearing losses caused by noise exposure, toxins or disease agents.[46] Common conditions that can increase the risk of hearing loss in elderly people are high blood pressure, diabetes, or the use of certain medications harmful to the ear.[47][48] While everyone loses hearing with age, the amount and type of hearing loss is variable.[49]

NEVER put anything inside your ear to remove earwax, such as cotton buds or your finger. Always use earplugs or a swimming hat over your ears when you swim. When showering or taking a bath at home, avoid getting water or shampoo in your ears. Do treat any conditions affecting your ears, such as eczema or allergies. Some people can find their hearing aids cause irritation.
Acoustic shock disorder (ASD) is an involuntary response to a sound perceived as traumatic (usually a sudden, unexpected loud sound heard near the ear), which causes a specific and consistent pattern of neurophysiological and psychological symptoms. These include aural pain/fullness, tinnitus, hyperacusis, muffled hearing, vertigo and other unusual symptoms such as numbness or burning sensations around the ear. Typically, people describe acoustic shock as feeling like they have been stabbed or electrocuted in the ear. If symptoms persist, a range of emotional reactions including post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression can develop.
Hearing loss in both ears can be either conductive, sensorineural, or a mixture of both. It’s best to see an audiologist whenever you think there is a noticeable change in both your ears. They’ll fully assess your ears and perform a number of tests to determine the type of hearing loss you may have, and they’ll be able to recommend the best treatment option to help.
Having information about tinnitus can be very helpful. A lot of people start off looking online and while there is some fantastic information available on the internet, there is also a lot of very unhelpful information. An easy way to ensure what you are reading is appropriately written and produced is to check that the Information Standard has been adhered to - all our information complies with the Information Standard.
Tinnitus is the perception of sound when no corresponding external sound is present.[1] While often described as a ringing, it may also sound like a clicking, buzzing, hiss, or roaring.[2] The sound may be soft or loud, low or high pitched, and appear to be coming from one or both ears.[2] In some people, the sound may interfere with concentration or increase feelings of anxiety or depression.[2] Tinnitus may be associated with some degree of hearing loss and with decreased understanding in noise.[2]
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